Menu:

 

More info:

 

Links:

DECUSHISTORY

DECCIVICS

 

The Basics of Civics/ELPS

Assignment Calendar

  Group Search

 

UNIT 1: The learner will investigate the foundations
of the American political system and explore basic
values and principles of American democracy.

Explain that fundamental political principles define and shape American
constitutional government. Include an analysis of the following fundamental political principles:

Consent of the governed—People are the source of any and all governmental power.  

Limited government—Government is not all-powerful and may do only those things people have given it the power to do.  

Rule of law—The government and those who govern are bound by the law.  

Democracy—In a democratic system of government, the people rule.  

Representative government—In a representative system of government people elect public officeholders to make laws and conduct government on their behalf.  

Explain that American constitutional government is founded on concepts articulated in earlier documents, including the charters of the North Carolina  Company of London, the North Carolina  Declaration of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the North Carolina  Statute for Religious Freedom.

Analyze the influence of earlier documents on the Constitution of the United States of America, using the following information as a guide:

Charters of the Virginia  Company of London

– Rights of Englishmen guaranteed to colonists  

The Virginia Declaration of Rights

– Served as a model for the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States of America  

Declaration of Independence

– Stated grievances against the king of Great Britain  

– Declared the colonies’ independence from Great Britain  

– Affirmed “certain unalienable rights” (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)  

– Established the idea that all people are equal under the law  

Articles of Confederation

– Established the first form of national government for the independent states  

– Maintained that major powers resided with individual states   

Weakness of central government (e.g., no power to tax and enforce laws). Led to the writing of the Constitution of the United States of America  

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

– Freedom of religious beliefs and opinions  


UNIT 2: The learner will analyze how the government established by the United States Constitution embodies the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy.

Constitution of the United States of America (including the Bill of Rights)

– Establishes the structure of the United States government   

– Guarantees equality under the law with majority rule and the rights of the minority protected  

– Affirms individual worth and dignity of all people  

– Protects the fundamental freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition  

Describe how the preamble of a constitution sets forth the goals and purposes to be served by the government. Include an analysis of the following purposes of U.S. government:

To form a union  

To establish justice  

To ensure domestic peace  

To provide defense  

Explain that the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States of America expresses the reasons the constitution was written. Analyze how the Preamble, which begins, “We the people,” establishes that the power of government comes from the people.  

Explain that separating power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches helps prevent any one branch from abusing its power.  

Describe how a system of checks and balances gives each of the three branches of government ways to limit the powers of the other branches.  

Use the following information to summarize how separation of powers and checks and balances protect against abuse of power by any one branch of government.

Legislative powers over

The executive branch

– Overrides vetoes  

– Impeaches a President  

The judicial branch

– Approves federal judges  

– Impeaches federal judges  

Executive powers over

The legislative branch

– Vetoes acts of Congress  

– Calls Congress into special session  

The judicial branch

– Appoints federal judges  

Judicial powers over

The legislative branch

– Declares laws unconstitutional  

The executive branch

– Declares executive acts unconstitutional  

Explain that the Constitution of the United States of America defines the process by which formal changes are made to the document.  

Explain that the process for amending the Constitution of the United States of America includes:

Action by Congress or convention   

Ratification by the states  

Explain that the amendment process is complex; to date, only 27 amendments have been added.

Explain how the Constitution of the United States of America establishes the principle of federalism, which is the division of power between the states and the national government.  

Using the following information, describe how the Constitution of the United States of America outlines powers divided and shared among the national, state, and local levels of government:

The Constitution of the United States of America establishes a federal form of government in which the national government is supreme.  

The powers of the national government are either enumerated/expressed or implied in the Constitution of the United States of America.  

The powers not given to the national government by the Constitution of the United States of America are reserved for the states.   

The Constitution of the United States of America denies powers to both the national and state governments.  


UNIT 3: The learner will analyze how state and local government is established by the North Carolina Constitution.

Foundations of Government in North Carolina

The United States has a federal system of government. Because North Carolina is one of the 50 states that make up the United States, it has both the federal (or national) government and the North Carolina state government.

Governments provide public service to their citizens. The national government provides nationwide public services such as Social Security and mail service. The North Carolina state government provides services for people in the state, such as regulating traffic on the state's highways. The various local state governments—counties, cities, and towns—provide services for people in a particular community.

North Carolina's state and local governments developed from the state's foundation as an English colony. North Carolina's state government is based on a constitution. The constitution includes a Declaration of Rights, which gives the people a basis upon which to claim freedom from certain government restrictions. The leaders of the newly independent state also gave most of the power to the elected representatives in the General Assembly, the new state legislature. Since 1776, North Carolina's constitution has been amended in many ways. The current North Carolina constitution was approved by voters in 1970 and took effect in 1971.

 North Carolina State Government

Like the federal Constitution, the North Carolina constitution provides for separation of powers among three branches—legislative, executive, and judicial. The state constitution outlines the organization of each branch, the powers and terms of various offices, and the method of election for state officials. The state constitution, like the federal Constitution, sets broad limits on what the government may do.

The North Carolina state legislature is called the General Assembly. Like the U.S. Congress, the General Assembly is made up of two houses—the senate and the house of representatives. The senate has 50 members and the house has 120 members. Members of both the state senate and the state house are elected for two-year terms. The General Assembly has authority to pass laws. Through this power, the General Assembly can decide how much money the state government will spend and how state expenses will be paid for. The General Assembly also reviews government operations to determine how well current laws are working and whether the laws need to be changed.

The executive branch carries out North Carolina state policies. The governor is North Carolina's chief executive. The governor's executive powers include the power to carry out laws and the power to supervise the state's executive branch. The governor, the lieutenant governor, and many other department heads and government officials in the executive branch help carry out state policies. The voters of North Carolina elect the governor, the lieutenant governor, and eight heads of state agencies. These state executives are called the Council of State. These officials, like the governor and the lieutenant governor, are elected to four-year terms.

Vital to the operation of state government, the judicial branch interprets and applies state and local laws. In doing so, state courts help resolve conflicts and grievances that citizens may have against each other. State courts also punish criminals who violate North Carolina laws. North Carolina has two kinds of trial courts: district courts and superior courts. District courts handle many kinds of legal cases and arguments. Superior courts handle civil cases involving more than $10,000 and felonies. Appellate courts review cases that a lower court has already decided. The North Carolina supreme court is the state court of final appeal.

 Local Government and Public Policy in North Carolina

North Carolina has two basic types of local government: counties and municipalities. North Carolina's more than 540 municipalities may be called cities, towns, or villages. The General Assembly has divided North Carolina into 100 counties. These local governments provide North Carolina's citizens with basic services such as education, fire and police protection, water, and sewage and sanitation. They are the governments closest and most accessible to you.

Local governments cooperate with state and federal government to carry out many policies. Providing education is one of the most important functions of government. In North Carolina, public education is the responsibility of both the state government and Local Education Authorities (LEAs). The task of the school board in each LEA is to decide how to organize its schools in order to meet the state's requirements. Most law enforcement is a local government responsibility in North Carolina. Municipal police and county sheriffs have the main responsibility for investigating crime. Municipal police also have the responsibility for enforcing traffic laws and investigating traffic accidents.

Many local governments in North Carolina regulate how land is used. Local governments create land-use plans to shape local development. Municipalities have the authority to adopt land-use plans that extend up to one mile beyond their city limits. Local governments use zoning to regulate the way land and buildings may be used. Governments at the local level often provide incentives to attract new businesses.

Paying for State and Local Government

North Carolina's governments must balance their budgets every year. This means that spending never exceeds revenue. State budget planning begins in the executive branch. Members of the governor's staff prepare estimates of the revenues and expenditures. After comparing the estimates, the governor must propose a balanced budget to the General Assembly. The General Assembly studies and revises the proposals. Typically, the leaders in the state senate and the house of representatives play a strong role in shaping the budget that the General Assembly finally passes.

North Carolina's local governments face many of the same issues in setting a budget as the state government faces. The city or county manager prepares a budget for the local government. After the manager presents the budget, the local governing body considers it. These elected officials may decide to follow the manager's proposals or they may balance the budget in some other way.

During the fiscal year 2000–2001, the state government spent about $26.8 billion. Health and human services and public education accounted for more than half of all state government spending. More than half of all state revenues comes from income taxes. During 2000–2001, North Carolina's cities, towns, and villages spent nearly $6.9 billion, with more than one-third of the amount going to pay for utilities. During the same fiscal year, North Carolina's counties spent $9.3 billion. Nearly one-third of the total went to Local Education Authorities to support public schools.


UNIT 4: The learner will explore active roles as a citizen at the local, state, and national levels of government.

Explain how the political parties play a key role in government and provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process.  

Describe the functions of political parties:

Recruiting and nominating candidates  

Educating the electorate about campaign issues  

Helping candidates win elections  

Monitoring actions of officeholder  

Explain that a two-party system characterizes the American political process.  

Explain that, although third parties rarely win elections, they play an important role in public politics.  

Third parties:

Introduce new ideas or press for a particular issue  

Often revolve around a political personality (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt)  

Compare the similarities and differences between parties.

Similarities between parties

– Organize to win elections    

– Influence public policies  

– Reflect both liberal and conservative views  

– Define themselves in a way that wins majority support by appealing to the political center  

Differences between parties:

– Stated in a party's platform and reflected in campaigning  

Explain how voters evaluate information presented in political campaigns to make reasoned choices among candidates.  

Explain the following strategies for evaluating campaign speeches, literature, and advertisements for accuracy:

Separating fact from opinion  

Detecting bias  

Evaluating sources  

Identifying propaganda  

Explain how the media plays an important role in the political process:

Mass media roles in elections:

Identifying candidates  

Emphasizing selected issues  

Writing editorials, creating political cartoons, publishing op-ed pieces  

Broadcasting different points of view  

Use the following information to explain that running for political office is expensive.

Rising campaign costs:

Require candidates to conduct extensive fund-raising activities  

Limit opportunities to run for public office  

Give an advantage to wealthy individuals who run for office  

Encourage the development of political action committees (PACs)   

Give issue-oriented special interest groups increased influence  

Explain how the high cost of getting elected changes campaigning for public office.

Campaign finance reform:

Rising campaign costs have led to efforts to reform campaign finance laws  

Limits exist on the amount individuals may contribute to political candidates and campaigns  

Explain that voting is a basic responsibility of citizenship.  

Describe why the number of citizens who register and vote is related to how important election issues are to citizens.  

Explain that only citizens who register can participate in primary and general elections.  

Identify the qualifications to register to vote in North Carolina :

Citizen of the United States  

Resident of North Carolina  and precinct   

18 years of age by day of general election  

Explain how to register in North Carolina :

In person at the registrar's office, at the Division of Motor Vehicles, or at other designated sites  

By mail application  

Registration is closed 29 days before elections.  

Explain the following factors in predicting which citizens will vote:

Education  

Age   

Income  

Explain why citizens fail to vote:

Lack of interest  

Failure to register  

Explain that the percentage of voters who participate in presidential elections is usually greater than the percentage of voters who participate in state and local elections.  

Demonstrate why every vote is important.  

Using the following information, explain that the electoral college process is used to select the President and Vice President of the United States.

The slate of electors for each state is chosen by popular vote.  

The electors meet to vote for President and Vice President.  

The winner-take-all system leads to the targeting of large states for campaigning, although candidates must pay attention to small states whose electoral votes may make the difference in tight elections.  

The number of electors of each state is based on the state’s Congressional representation.  

The requirements for a majority vote to win in the electoral college favors a two-party system.  

Explain that the media informs policymakers and influences public policy by:

Focusing public attention on selected issues  

Offering a forum in which opposing viewpoints are communicated  

Holding government officials accountable to the public  

Explain that government officials use the media to communicate with the public.  

Explain the ways individuals influence public policy.  

Identify the term “Lobbying” - Seeking to influence legislators to introduce or vote for or against a bill.  

Using the following information, explain the ways interest groups influence public policy:

Identifying issues  

Making political contributions  

Lobbying government officials  

 Using the following information, explain the ways individuals influence public policy:

Participating in politics (voting, campaigning)  

Expressing opinions (lobbying, demonstrating, writing letters)  

Joining interest groups  

 Explain how the Constitution of the United States of America establishes the principle of federalism, which is the division of power between the states and the national government.  

Describe how legislative, executive, and judicial powers are separated at the state level of government.  

Explain that all powers of local government in North Carolina  are created and controlled by the state.  

Explain that the powers and responsibilities of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches at the local and state levels are limited.  

The North Carolina  General Assembly is a bicameral legislature. Bicameral means having two houses (e.g., the Senate and the House of Delegates).

Legislative

Local Government

– Makes ordinances for community; approves annual budget; limits power to that delegated by the state  

North Carolina  Government

– Makes laws for North Carolina ; approves biennial (two-year) budget; exercises power under the 10th amendment  

Executive

Local Government

– Elected or appointed by the Board of Supervisors or City Council; city or county managers hired by local legislature  

North Carolina  Government

– Executes laws of North Carolina ; prepares biennial budget for General Assembly; appoints cabinet officers and boards; administers state bureaucracy; grants pardons  

Judicial

Local Government

– Local courts—Hear cases under the authority provided by state legislation  

North Carolina  Government

– Supreme Court—Has power of judicial review over state laws  

– Circuit courts—Try civil and criminal cases  

Using the following information, describe the lawmaking process in national and state legislatures:

Working in committees  

Debating on the floor  

Voting on a bill by both houses  

Signing the bill into law by the President or governor   

Elected officials write laws and take action in response to problems or issues.  

Individuals and interest groups help shape legislation. Explain the following legislative powers:

Expressed (specifically listed)  

Implied (used to carry out expressed powers)  

Using the following information, explain that the executive branch plays a key role in the policymaking process.  

Ways the executive branch influences policymaking

Proposing legislation in an annual speech to the legislature (State of the State or State of the Union Address)  

Appealing directly to the people  

Approving or vetoing legislation  

Appointing officials who carry out the laws  

Explain that the powers of the executive branch are defined in the Constitution of North Carolina .  

Explain that the executive branch at the state level carries out the law.   

Explain that cabinet departments, agencies, and regulatory groups interpret and help with carrying out laws.  

Explain that the judicial function is exercised in a dual court system, which consists of state courts and federal courts.  


UNIT 5: The learner will explain how the political and legal systems provide a means to balance competing interests and resolve conflicts.

Describe the primary responsibilities of each level of government:

National  

State  

Local  

Explain that legislative, executive, and judicial powers are separated at the national level of government.  

Explain that the powers and responsibilities of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government are limited.  

Using the following information, explain that officials who are elected to serve in the state and national legislatures make laws.  

The United States Congress is a bicameral legislature. Bicameral means having two houses (e.g., the Senate and the House of Representatives).

Legislative

– Makes laws for nation; approves annual budget; approves presidential appointments  

Executive

– Executes law of the land; prepares annual budget for congressional action; appoints cabinet officers, ambassadors, and federal judges; administers federal bureaucracy  

Judicial

– Supreme Court—Has power of judicial review  

– Federal courts—Try cases involving federal law and United States Constitutional question  

Using the following information, describe the lawmaking process in Congress:

Working in committees  

Debating on the floor  

Voting on a bill by both houses  

Signing the bill into law by the President   

Elected officials write laws and take action in response to problems or issues.  

Individuals and interest groups help shape legislation.  

Explain the following legislative powers:

Expressed (specifically listed)  

Implied (used to carry out expressed powers)  

Using the following information, explain that the executive branch plays a key role in the policymaking process. The executive branch influences policymaking by:

Proposing legislation in an annual speech to the legislature (State of the Union Address)  

Appealing directly to the people  

Approving or vetoing legislation  

Appointing officials who carry out the laws  

Explain that the powers of the executive branch are defined in the Constitution of the United States of America.   

Explain that the executive branch at the national level carries out the law.   

Explain that cabinet departments, agencies, and regulatory groups interpret and help with carrying out laws.  

Explain that the judicial function is exercised in a dual court system, which consists of state courts and federal courts.  

Using the information below, explain that the United States has a separate court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from the Constitution of the United States of America and federal laws.

United States Supreme Court (Justices/no jury)

– Jurisdiction: Appellate and Limited Original  

United States Court of Appeals (Justices/no jury)

– Jurisdiction: Appellate  

United States District Court (Judge with jury)

– Jurisdiction: Original  

Using the following information, describe how the power of judicial review is an important check on the legislative and executive branches of government.  

The Supreme Court of the United States determines the constitutionality of laws and acts of the executive branch of government. This power is called judicial review.  

Marbury v. Madison established the principle of judicial review at the national level.  

The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the land.  

Using the following information, explain that courts resolve two kinds of legal conflicts—civil and criminal— and compare the two.

Criminal law

– In a criminal case, a court determines whether a person accused of breaking the law is guilty or not guilty of a misdemeanor or a felony.  

Civil law

– In a civil case, a court settles a disagreement between two parties.  


UNIT 6: The learner will explain why laws are needed and how they are enacted, implemented, and enforced at the national, state, and local levels.

Using the chart below, explain that North Carolina , like each of the other forty-nine states, has its own court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from North Carolina ’s constitution and state laws.

North Carolina  Supreme Court (Justices/no jury)

– Court of final appeal (Appellate jurisdiction)  

– Limited original jurisdiction   

Court of Appeals of North Carolina  (Judges/no jury)

– Appellate jurisdiction from circuit courts  

Circuit Court (Judge and jury)

– Original jurisdiction for felony criminal cases and for certain civil cases  

– Appellate jurisdiction from district courts   

General District Court (Judge)

– Original jurisdiction of misdemeanors  

– Civil cases generally involving lower dollar amounts  

Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court  (Judge/no jury)

– Juvenile and family cases  

Using the following information, explain that courts resolve two kinds of legal conflicts—civil and criminal.

Criminal law:

– In a criminal case, a court determines whether a person accused of breaking the law is guilty or not guilty of a misdemeanor or a felony.  

Civil law

– In a civil case, a court settles a disagreement between two parties.  

Criminal procedure in felony cases

– A person accused of a crime may be arrested if the police have probable cause.  

– The accused may be committed to jail or released on bail.  

– The case proceeds to an arraignment where probable cause is reviewed, the defendant may be appointed an attorney, and a plea is entered.  

– A court date is set and a trial is conducted.  

– A guilty verdict may be appealed to the Court of Appeals or to the Supreme Court in certain cases.  

Procedure for civil cases

– The plaintiff files a complaint to recover damages or receive compensation.  

– Case can be heard by judge or jury.  

– Case can be appealed to the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court.  

Procedure for cases involving juveniles

– Judges have greater latitude in handling juvenile cases.  

– Juveniles who commit serious crimes can be tried as adults.  


UNIT 7: The learner will investigate how and why individuals and groups make economic choices.

Explain that people make choices about how to use limited resources, decide the ownership of resources, and structure markets for the distribution of goods and services.  

Using the following information, explain how people deal with scarcity, resources, choices, opportunity cost, price, incentives, supply and demand, and consumption:

Scarcity is the inability to satisfy all wants at the same time. All resources and goods are limited. This requires that choices be made.  

Resources are factors of production that are used in the production of goods and services. Types of resources are natural, human, capital, and entrepreneurship.  

Choice is selecting an item or action from a set of possible alternatives. Individuals must choose/make decisions about desired goods and services because these goods and services are limited.  

Opportunity cost is what is given up when a choice is made—the highest valued alternative forgone. Individuals must consider the value of what is given up when making a choice.  

Price is the amount of money exchanged for a good or service. Interaction of supply and demand determines price. Price determines who acquires goods and services.

Incentives are things that incite or motivate. Incentives are used to change economic behavior.  

Supply and demand determines price through their interaction. Demand is the amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price. Supply is the amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price.  

Production is the combining of human, natural, capital, and entrepreneurship resources to make goods or provide services. Resources available and consumer preferences determine what is produced.   

Consumption is using goods and services. Consumer preferences and price determine what is purchased.  

Explain that the type of economy is determined by the extent of government involvement in economic decision making.  


UNIT 8: The learner will analyze features of the economic system of the United States.

Identify characteristics of major economic systems:

Free market

– Private ownership of property/resources   

– Profit   

– Competition   

– Consumer sovereignty  

– Individual choice  

Command economy

– Central ownership of property/resources  

– Centrally-planned economy  

– Lack of consumer choice  

Mixed economy

– Individuals and businesses as decision makers for the private sector  

– Government as decision maker for the public sector  

– A greater government role than in a free market economy  

– Most common economic system today  

Explain how the United States economy is a mixed economy.  

Describe how, in the United States, private individuals, businesses, and government share economic decision making.   

Explain the characteristics of the United States economy

Free markets—Allowed to operate without undue interference from the government.  

Private property—Individuals and businesses have the right to own personal property as well as the means of production without undue interference from the government.  

Profit—Earnings after all expenses have been paid.  

Competition—Rivalry between producers/sellers of a good or service results in better quality goods and services at a lower price.  

Consumer sovereignty—Consumers determine through purchases, what goods and services will be produced.  

Describe the three basic structures that businesses use to earn profits:

Proprietorship—A form of business organization with one owner who takes all the risks and all the profits.  

Partnership—A form of business organization with two or more owners who share the risks and the profits.  

Corporation—A form of business organization that is authorized by law to act as a legal person regardless of the number of owners. Owners share the profits. Owner liability is limited to investment.  

Describe an entrepreneur:

A person who takes a risk to produce goods and services in search of profit  

May establish a business according to any of the three types of organizational structures  

Explain that entrepreneurs play an important role in all three business organizations.  

Using the following information, explain how resources, goods and services, and money flow continuously among households, businesses, and markets in the United States economy:

Economic flow

– Individual and business saving and investment provide financial capital that can be borrowed for business expansion and increased consumption.  

– Individuals (households) own the resources used in production, sell the resources, and use the income to purchase products.  

– Businesses (producers) buy resources; make products that are sold to individuals, other businesses, and the government; and use the profits to buy more resources.   

– Governments use tax revenue from individuals and businesses to provide public goods and services.  

Explain how private financial institutions act as intermediaries between savers and borrowers.  

Identify characteristics of private financial institutions:

Include banks, savings and loans, credit unions, and securities brokerages  

Receive deposits and make loans  

Encourage saving and investing by paying interest on deposits  

Using the following information, explain how the United States government promotes and regulates competition:

Ways the government promotes marketplace competition

– Enforcing antitrust legislation to discourage the development of monopolies  

– Engaging in global trade  

– Supporting business start-ups  

Government agencies that regulate business

– FCC (Federal Communications Commission)  

– EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)  

– FTC (Federal Trade Commission)  

These agencies oversee the way individuals and companies do business.  

Explain that government provides public goods and services that individuals acting alone could not provide efficiently.  

Identify characteristics of public goods and services:

Include such items as interstate highways, postal service, and national defense  

Provide benefits to many simultaneously  

Would not be available if individuals had to provide them  

Describe ways governments produce public goods and services

Through tax revenue  

Through borrowed funds  

Using the following information, explain that the government taxes, borrows, and spends to influence economic activity.

Government tax increases reduce the funds available for private and business spending; tax decreases increase funds for private and business spending.  

Increased government borrowing reduces funds available for borrowing by individuals and businesses; decreased government borrowing increases funds available for borrowing by individuals and businesses.  

Increased government spending increases demand, which may increase employment and production; decreased spending reduces demand, which may result in a slowing of the economy.  

Increased government spending may result in higher taxes; decreased government spending may result in lower taxes.  

The 16th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America authorizes Congress to tax incomes (personal and business).  

Explain how the Federal Reserve System, acting as the central bank, regulates the money supply.  

Describe the role of the Federal Reserve System in maintaining a stable economy:  

Explain that the Federal Reserve banks act as a banker’s bank by issuing currency and regulating the amount of money in circulation.  

Using the following information, explain that, to slow the economy, the Federal Reserve Bank restricts the money supply, causing interest rates to rise; to stimulate the economy the Fed increases the money supply, causing interest rates to decline:

Ways the Federal Reserve Bank slows the economy:

– Increases the reserve requirement  

– Raises the discount rate  

– Sells government securities  

Ways the Federal Reserve Bank stimulates the economy:

– Lowers the reserve requirement   

– Lowers the discount rate  

– Purchases government securities  

Describe how the United States government passes laws and creates agencies to protect consumer rights and property rights.  

Explain that individuals have the right of private ownership, which is protected by negotiated contracts that are enforceable by law.  

Explain that government agencies establish guidelines that protect public health and safety.  

Explain that consumers may take legal action against violations of consumer rights.  

Explain reasons why North Carolina and the United States pursue international trade in order to increase wealth, using the following information.

To obtain goods and services they cannot produce or produce efficiently themselves  

To buy goods and services at a lower cost or a lower opportunity cost  

To sell goods and services to other countries  

To create jobs  


UNIT 9: The learner will analyze factors influencing the United States economy.

Describe a Global Economy as worldwide markets in which the buying and selling of goods and services by all nations takes place.  

Explain that North Carolina  and the United States specialize in the production of certain goods and services that promote efficiency and growth.  

Describe the impact of technological innovations on world trade.

Innovations in technology (e.g., the Internet) contribute to the global flow of information, capital, goods, and services.  

The use of such technology also lowers the cost of production.  

Using the following information, explain that career planning starts with self-assessment:

An awareness of individual talents, interests, and aspirations is needed to select a career.  

Attitudes and behaviors that support a strong work ethic enhance career success.  

Employers seek employees who demonstrate the attitudes and behaviors of a strong work ethic.  

There is a correlation between skills, education, and income.  

Higher skill(s) and/or education level(s) generally lead to higher incomes.  

Changes in technology influence the abilities, skills, and education needed in the marketplace.  

Employers seek individuals who have kept pace with technological change/skills.  

Technological advancements create new jobs in the workplace.  

Supply and demand also influence job income.  


UNIT 10: The learner will develop, defend, and evaluate positions on issues regarding the personal responsibilities of citizens in the American constitutional democracy.

Explain that a citizen is an individual with certain rights and duties under a government and who, by birth or by choice, owes allegiance to that government.  

Using the following information, explain how an individual becomes a citizen:

The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America defines citizenship: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the state wherein they reside.”  

Means of obtaining citizenship are by:

– Birth  

– Naturalization  

Immigration and naturalization, particularly in the twentieth century, have led to an increasingly diverse society.  

To become a citizen through naturalization, a person must demonstrate knowledge of American history and principles and the ability to speak and write English.  

Explain that the Constitution of the United States of America establishes and protects the citizen's fundamental rights and liberties.   

Explain that few rights, if any, are considered absolute.  

Identify First Amendment freedoms:

Religion—Government may not establish an official religion, nor endorse, or unduly interfere with the free exercise of religion.  

Speech—Individuals are free to express their opinions and beliefs.   

Press—The press has the right to gather and publish information, including that which criticizes the government.  

Assembly—Individuals may peacefully gather.   

Petition—Individuals have the right to make their views known to public officials.  

Identify the Fourteenth Amendment:  Extends the due process protection to actions of the states.  

Explain that, for government to be effective, citizens must fulfill their civic duties.  

Identify the duties of responsible citizens:

Obey laws  

Pay taxes  

Serve in the armed forces if called  

Serve on a jury or as a witness in court  

Explain that citizens who choose not to fulfill these civic duties face legal consequences.  

Explain that a basic responsibility of citizenship is to contribute to the common good.  

Explain that civic responsibilities are fulfilled by choice; they are voluntary.  

Identify some responsibilities of citizens:

Register and vote  

Hold elective office  

Influence government by communicating with government officials  

Serve in voluntary, appointed positions  

Participate in political campaigns  

Keep informed regarding current issues  

Respect others' rights to an equal voice in government  

Explain that a democratic society requires the active participation of its citizens.  

Identify ways for citizens to participate in community service:

Volunteer to support democratic institutions (e.g., League of Women Voters).  

Express concern about the welfare of the community as a whole (e.g., environment, public health and safety, education).  

Help to make the community a good place in which to work and live (e.g., by becoming involved with public service organizations, tutoring, volunteering in nursing homes).  

Explain that thoughtful and effective participation in civic life depends upon the exercise of good citizenship.  

Identify personal traits of good citizens:

Trustworthiness and honesty  

Courtesy and respect for the rights of others  

Responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance  

Respect for the law  

Patriotism  

Explain that the right to due process of the law is outlined in the 5th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America.  

Identify due process of law as the constitutional protection against unfair governmental actions and laws.  

Describe how due process protections ensure justice:

5th Amendment—Prohibits the national government from acting in an unfair manner.  

14th Amendment—Prohibits state and local governments from acting in an unfair manner.  

The Supreme Court has extended the due process clauses to protect the guarantees of the Bill of Rights.  

 

 

4 3
 
2